Grammar Gurus




See the CLB chart at the bottom of this page and fill in your 'happy face' chart as you go through all the exercises from Level 1-2 first to 5-6.






Adjective
Name
eduLINC
Username=Password
Class
GG
CLB 1-2
GG CLB 3-4
GG CLB 5-6
GG CLB 7-8

Hopeful
S4573
LHS





Important
S4579
CB 3-5





Romantic
S4580
CCS 4-5
J




Sweet48
S4582
CB 3-5





Sweet
S4585
CB 3-5





Natural
S4586
CB 3-5





Magnetic
S4589
CB 3-5
J




Dreamy
S33531
CCS 4-5





Shiny
S33532
CCS 4-5





Rosy
S33533
CCS 4-5





Famous
S33534
CCS 4-5





Lively
S33535
CCS 4-5





Lucky
S33536
CCS 4-5





Peaceful
S33537
CCS 4-5





Modern
S33538
CCS 4-5





Hopeful
S33539
CCS 4-5





Bright
S33540
CB 3-5





Super
S33541
CB 3-5





Happy
S33542
CB 3-5





Equal
S33543
CCS 4-5





Beautiful
S33544
CB 3-5





Alluring
S33545
CB 3-5





Real
S33546
CB 3-5





Lovely
S33547
CB 3-5





Intelligent
S33548
CB 3-5





Inspired
S33549
CB 3-5





Wonderful
S33550
CB 3-5





Great
S33551
CB 3-5





Musical
S33552
CB 3-5





Mighty
S33553
CB 3-5





Amazing27
S33554
CCS 4-5





Amazing
S33555
CCS 4-5





Lovely
S33556
CCS 4-5





Friendly
S33557
CCS 4-5





Unique
S33558
CB 3-5





XXX
S33559-S33578
CB 5-8





XXX
S33579
??





Merry
S33580
CCS 4-5





Adorable
S33581
CCS 4-5





Zippy
S33582
CCS 4-5





Magic
S33583
CCS 4-5





Royal
S33584
CCS 4-5





Radiant
S33585
CCS 4-5





GEIROD
S33586
LHS





KULSAR
S33587
LHS





ZAKHLA
S33588
LHS





ALYGEO
S33589
LHS





Daring
S33590
Teacher






Grammar Items – LINC Level 5
  • All previous grammar items from LINC 1-4 plus:
  1. "Wish' = present and past unreal
  2. Advisability, past modals (could have, should have, etc.0
  3. Noun Clauses
  4. Passive Voice
  5. Purpose
  6. Past Perfect
  7. Future Continuous
  8. Future Perfect

Grammar Items – LINC Level 4
  • All previous grammar items from LINC 1-3 plus:
  1. Adjectives: Present / past participle
  2. Adjective clauses
  3. Adverbs: Equative, non-equative
  4. Adverb clauses
  5. Conditional sentences: Real, unreal
  6. Gerunds and infinitives
  7. Logical connectors: Transition words, adverbial clause words
  8. Pronouns: Relative, reciprocal, indefinite
  9. Questions: Embedded
  10. Rejoinders
  11. Speech: Reported Speech

Grammar Items – LINC Level 3
  • All previous grammar items from LINC 1-2 plus:
  1. Adjectives: Intensifier, equative, non-equative
  2. Adjective phrases
  3. Adverbs: Intensifier, comparative, superlative, duration
  4. Expressions: Quantity
  5. Modals: Obligation, prohibition, degrees of certainty, habitual past
  6. Phrasal verbs: separable, non-separable
  7. Pronouns: reflexive
  8. Questions: Tag
  9. Speech: Direct
  10. Verbs: Verbs + gerunds or infinitives to express likes,, dislikes, needs, wants
  11. Verb tenses: Past continuous, present perfect

- Carefree 13-04-04


Source: Grammar Spiralling Grid, The Adult ESL Curriculum Guidelines, Toronto Catholic District School Board
Grammar Proficiency at Canadian Language Benchmarks 1-10

We have added some websites where you can practice various grammar items.
You can also google the grammar items to find other available resources to practise them. If you find something good or better that what we have here, email us.
Most of the listed websites cover all aspects of English grammar so be sure to browse their contents.


Grammar Items
(in an alphabetical order)
CLB 1-2
CLB 3-4
CLB
5-6
CLB 7-8
CLB 9-10
Learning material available online
Additions to remarks, e.g. so do I, neither is she


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*
*
'So do I' activity
Adjectives:





Everything about adjectives
possessive, demonstrative, e.g. my, she, this
*
*
*
*
*
Explanation of possessive 's'
comparative, superlative; intensifiers, e.g. taller, the tallest; much taller
*
*
*
*
*
Comparative and superlative adjectives
indefinite adjectives

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*
*
*
Explanation and exercises
equative, non-equative


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*
*
Explanation and Exercises at Bottom of Page
order of adjectives


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*
*
adjective order
adjectives with definite article, e.g. the rich


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*
*

present and past participles

*
*
*
*
Participial adjectives Exercise
linking verbs + adjectives


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*
*
Linking verbs+adj Exercise
Adjective clauses:






defining and non-defining



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*
Adjective clauses
reducing adjective clauses (leaving out relative pronoun)



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*
Point 2 re: reducing
prepositions in adjective clauses (at the end/beginning)




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Prepositions in adjective clauses
Adverbs:






adverbs of frequency
*
*
*
*
*
http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/adverbs-frequency.htm
adverbs of time, place, manner
*
*
*
*
*
Exercises
comparative, superlative; intensifiers (adverbs of degree)


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*
*
Exercise
equative, non-equative

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*
*
*
Equative Adverb Exercises
adverbs and word order (position of adverbs)


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*
*
order of Adverbs word order
adverbial phrases





Exercises
Adverb clauses


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*
*
Adverbials on BBC
Articles:





Articles Some more examples
Using Articles
http://www.eslwriting.org/12967/learn-english-writing-articles-esl-students-essays-composition/
definite, indefinite
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*
*
*
*
The/a
articles in names of places


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*
*
Jennifer's video
articles in phrases of time and place
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*
*
*
*
http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/preps_time.html
Conditional sentences:





Conditional sentences
Practice the IF clauses
real conditionals: present, future, i.e. 0 and 1st conditional


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*
*
0&1st conditionals
unreal conditionals: present, i.e. 2nd conditional


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*
*
2nd conditional song on youtube
another exercise
unreal conditionals: past, i.e. 3rd conditional



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*
Third conditional
should in present conditionals



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Should you see him again, walk the other way!
omitting 'if' (inversion in conditionals)



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*
Omitting IF
implied conditions




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Implied conditions
mixed conditionals




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Mixed
wish



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*
Wish Examples
Wish 2 Wish 3
Emphatic structures:





Adding emphasis
do


*
*
*
http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-43994.php
http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-47059.php
no vs. not


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*
*
Exercise
cleft sentences (it, wh-)




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Cleft Sentence Exercises
Fronted negatives (none, no, neither)




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Fronted Negative Exercises
Gerunds and infinitives:






present form after common verbs


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*
*

gerunds and infinitives as subject, object, complement



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*

past form



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*
Compare present and past gerund fprms
past and passive forms




*

Logical connectors:






sequence markers

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*
*
*
Logical and sequence connectors
coordinating conjunctions

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*
*
*
Exercises about conjunctions
correlative (paired) conjunctions


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*
*

sentence connectors (subordinate conjunctions)


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*
*
Subordinating Conjunction Exercises
transitions (discourse organizers)



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*
Transition exercises
Modals:





Modals - Advanced analysis
request
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*
*
*
*
Exercises
ability, possibility
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*
*
*
*
Can, may, must explanation and quiz
necessity, obligation, permission, prohibition

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*
*
*
Compare Modals of Obligation and Modals of Suggestion (exercise)
certainty, probability


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*
*
Modals of Certainty and Probability (Great Explanation and Exercises!)
suggestion, advice, promise

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*
*
*
Modals of Advice (exercises)
habitual past


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*
*

advisability and past modals



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*
Advisability Modal Exercises
Nouns:






singular, plural
*
*
*
*
*
Exercises
countable, non-countable
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*
*
*
*
http://www.englishpage.com/minitutorials/countable-uncountable-nouns.htm
collective (pair and group nouns)

*
*
*
*

possessive forms
*
*
*
*
*
http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agr_possessives.html
noun modifiers

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*
*
*
Explanation and quiz
Noun clauses



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*

Passive Voice:






transitive, intransitive verbs


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*
*
Quiz
causative 'have'



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*

Partitives

*
*
*
*

Phrasal verbs:






common phrasal verbs

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*
*
*
Common Phrasal Verb List and Meanings (see Quiz at Bottom of Page)
separable, non-separable


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*
*

Prepositions:






time, place, movement, duration, purpose
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*
*
*
*
Prepositions time, place, direction exercises
verb/adjective+preposition clusters

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*
*
*

Pronouns:






subject, object, demonstrative
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*
*
*
*
Replace Nouns with Pronoun (exercise)
http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/73.html
interrogative, possessive
*
*
*
*
*
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/pronouns-relative-reflexive-interrogative-possessive.html#lesson
reflexive, indefinite

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*
*
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Reflexive Pronoun (exercises)
relative, reciprocal

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*
*
*
Relative Pronoun Exercises
Quantifiers

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*
*
*

Questions:






yes/no
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*
*
*
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Yes/No Questions (Explanation and Exercises)
wh-
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*
*
*
*
Exercises
embedded questions


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*
*
Embedded Question (exercises)
tag questions



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*
Exercises
Reported Speech






reporting affirmative/negative sentences, questions and imperatives


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*
*
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/reported-speech.html
sequence of tenses
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*
*
*
*
Exercises
Subjunctive mode




*
http://www.eslmonster.com/article/as-ifas-though-past-subjunctive
http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/subjunctive.html
http://gmat-grammar.blogspot.com/2006/06/subjunctive-verbs.html
There is, There are



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Exercises
Verbs:






be
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*
*
*
*
To be, to have, to go exercises
have
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*
*
*
To have, to be, to go exercises
negative forms
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Negative Forms (exercises)
imperatives
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Imperative Verb Exercises
Verb tenses:






verb tenses as phrases in order to achieve outcomes, e.g. I was born
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*
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*

Simple Present, Present Continuous
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*
*
*
*
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/simcon.htm
Simple Future, to be going to

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*
*
Exercises
Simple Past (regular, irregular verbs)

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Simple Past Regular Verb Forms: quiz
Past Continuous

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Past Continuous (exercises)
Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous


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Verb Tense Explanation and Many Exercises
Past Perfect


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Past Perfect Exercises
Future Continuous


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Explanation and Exercises
Future Perfect (Continuous)



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Many Exercises!
Past Perfect Continuous



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Test Yourself!
Simple Present with future time markers



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Simple Present and Simple Future with Future Time Markers (exercises)
Present Continuous with future time markers


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Present Continuous (exercises)
Present Continuous with always



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Present Continous with"always" see use 4 (exercises)
Word order in a sentence






S + V + O
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*
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English word order exercises
S + V + C
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*

S + V + DO + IO

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Quiz comparing different Word Orders
Other:






Subject-verb agreement
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*
*
*
*
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/sv_agr.htm
Parallel structures


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*
*
Grammatical Parallelism CLB 7+
Word formation: prefixes and suffixes

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*
*
*

Punctuation and capitalization
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*
*
*
*
http://www.grammarbook.com/english_rules.asp
Spelling
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Spelling City: practice spelling
Note-taking conventions


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Paragraph-writing conventions

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Paragraph Writing Exercises
Note-writing conventions

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Memo-writing conventions


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Letter-writing conventions


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Email- writing conventions


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*
email etiquette
Essay-writing conventions


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*
http://www.uefap.com/writing/writfram.htm
References, quotations, bibliography conventions


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*

Report-writing conventions (informal/form reports)


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*

Report-, proposal-writing conventions (formal reports)



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*

grammar terms





http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/terms.htm






















Spelling
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Spelling City: practice spelling
Note-taking conventions


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Paragraph-writing conventions

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Paragraph Writing Exercises
Note-writing conventions

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*
*

Memo-writing conventions


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Letter-writing conventions


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*

Email- writing conventions


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*
email etiquette
Essay-writing conventions


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*
http://www.uefap.com/writing/writfram.htm
References, quotations, bibliography conventions


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Report-writing conventions (informal/form reports)


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Report-, proposal-writing conventions (formal reports)



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Grammar Resources – The Good Ones

  • http://www.espressoenglish.net/ -- Shayna. from the United States, currently in Brazil, English teacher and translator. CELTA certification will send mini English lessons and free eBooks to your email address. nicely crafted visual presentations with grammar notes.
  • **English Page** The best verb tense resource. Print and go. clear explanations of all tenses plus exercises.
  • **ESL Jokes** - Lessons that start with a joke – graded by Level
  • **bogglesworldesl**.com/ - Worksheets, lesson plans, and activities, printable resources for TESOL, TEFL and Young Learner ...
  • **http://www.ESLFlow.com** - created by ESL teacher, Peter Snashall, has hundreds of excellent lesson plans and ideas Materials are organized into three levels and twenty categories, among them Icebreakers, Grammar, Vocabulary, Debate, Reading, Pronunciation, Communication Techniques, and Academic Writing.
  • ESL Galaxy PrintablesExample – Festivals crosswordpre-intermediate over 2368 worksheets constantly updated
  • English ClubGrammar, Warm Ups And Time Fillers - ideas
  • Theme Lessons, Skills Lessons. Listen To News, Language Tools - dictionary and thesauraus sites
    • **Rong** **Chang**a starting point for ESL / EFL learners who want to study English through the Web. The site is updated constantly. It refers you to hundreds of other high-quality resources.
    • Mike the Grammar tutor answers questions. **Talk to Tutor Mike**
      • Here is a recent conversation I had with him.
      • YOU: Hi Mike, do I say: "None of us is cold" OR "None of us are cold" ? Mike: You say None of us is cold. YOU: How do I use the Present Perfect Continuous? Mike: The PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE indicates a continuous action that started in the past, continues until now, and is still continuing, or the action finished a moment ago.
  • Using English.com **Lesson Plans – ready to print** - Nicely formatted worksheets - Graded by level, theme and purpose
  • TeachThis.com EFL/ESL Activities, Worksheets, Lessons
  • Activities are labelled with level and time allowance. Nicely formatted and ready to print for class
  • **TEFL.NET Lesson Plans** Some lesson plans are arranged by level, but all adapt easily.
  • **Lingua Press** - Intermediate and advanced - Limited selection, but good quality and comprehensive reading lesson plans - print and go.

ØWelcome to the Study Zone! – University of Victoria

ØChoose your English language level - Grammar Bytes: chompchomp.com - Good Quality handouts and online exercises for upper intermediate and above

ØMy English Pages-LeaRN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ONLINE


http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/nouns-possessive.htm Adverbs of time, place, mannerExplanation and exercises

Simple Past
http://www.eslcafe.com/quiz/past1.html

What is the difference between 'will' and 'would'.
https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/verbs/modal-verbs/will-or-would

Verb Tense description and practice
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage


The Eight Parts of Speech


Noun - A word which is a person, place, thing or idea.
Examples: Mount Everest, book, horse, Peter, strength, car, Empire State Building, China, house, child
Pronoun - A word that is used to take the place of a noun.
Examples: I, they, their, ourselves, itself, your, my, nobody, who, which, her, we
Adjective - A word that is used to describe a noun or pronoun.
Examples: proud, purple, French, few, this, huge, sad, second, none
Verb - A word that indicates an action, being or state or being.
Examples: play, run, think, study, smell, wait, be, drive, renounce, fill
Adverb - A word that is used to describe a verb which tells how, where, or when something is done.
Examples: carefully, often, very, intelligently, quite, too, rarely, never
Conjunction - A word that is used to join words or groups of words.
Examples: and, or, but, neither, because, while, since, although
Preposition - A word used indicating the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word.
Examples: in, until, of, from, after, under, beyond, across, toward
Interjection - A single word used to express strong emotion.
Examples: Wow! Ah! Oh! No!


Rank
Base Form
Past Tense Form
Past Participle
1
say
said
said
2
make
made
made
3
go
went
gone
4
take
took
taken
5
come
came
come
6
see
saw
seen
7
know
knew
known
8
get
got
got/gotten (US)
9
give
gave
given
10
find
found
found
11
think
thought
thought
12
tell
told
told
13
become
became
become
14
show
showed
shown
15
leave
left
left
16
feel
felt
felt
17
put
put
put
18
bring
brought
brought
19
begin
began
begun
20
keep
kept
kept
21
hold
held
held
22
write
wrote
written
23
stand
stood
stood
24
hear
heard
heard
25
let
let
let
26
mean
meant
meant
27
set
set
set
28
meet
met
met
29
run
ran
run
30
pay
paid
paid
31
sit
sat
sat
32
speak
spoke
spoken
33
lie
lay
lain
34
lead
led
led
35
read
read
read
36
grow
grew
grown
37
lose
lost
lost
38
fall
fell
fallen
39
send
sent
sent
40
build
built
built
41
understand
understood
understood
42
draw
drew
drawn
43
break
broke
broken
44
spend
spent
spent
45
cut
cut
cut
46
rise
rose
risen
47
drive
drove
driven
48
buy
bought
bought
49
wear
wore
worn
50
choose
chose
chosen



(LINC 3)

What are Modal Verbs ?


Modal verbs are words that modify the meaning of sentences in English. perhaps the easiest way to see how modal verbs work is to look at what happens when we add modals to sentences.

Sentence with no Modal > Meaning

Jack traveled around the world last year. > This tells you what Jack did. It's a fact.

Sentences with modal Verbs > Meaning

Jack couldn't travel around the world. > This means that Jack did not have the ability to travel or there was a prohibition against it.

Jack had to travel around the world last year. > This means that there was an obligation for jack to travel it was necessary.

Jack may have traveled around the world last year. > This means that you are not sure what jack did. It tells you about a possibility.

Do I have to know the meanings and uses of all of the modals ? There are so many !


No you don't. Try to know the usual meanings and use one or two modals for each meaning. Over time, as your language skills increase, you can begin to use more modals in a number of different situations.

How do I know if this "can" is ability, request, permission or invitation ?


This happens often with modals. You see the same modal with a number of different meanings. Look at the One-Word and Phrasal Modal charts below that give the forms and meanings of modals. The main way to understand the meaning of a modal verb is by its context. Ask yourself these questions: "What is the speaker or the writer trying to say? What is the situation?" These questions will help you understand the context.

Do I have to use modals?


No, you don't. You can avoid using modals. However, if you use them, you will speak more like a native speaker, and, in many cases, you will be able to say more in fewer words.

Example:

It's possible that I will go out to dinner with my mother tonight. (six words)

Maybe I will go out to dinner with my mother tonight. (three words)

I may go out to dinner with my mother tonight. (two words)

The sentence using "may", says the same thing but with fewer words. When you're learning a language, try to keep things SIMPLE !

MODAL Chart


One-Word Modals > Meaning


Can > ability, permission ... question, request ... question, invitation ... question
Can't > negative Ability, prohibition, probability: inference
Could > past ability, request ... question, invitation ... question, possibility, indirect speech
Couldn't > probability: negative inference
Should > Advisability / recommendation, probability: expectation
May > permission ... question, indirect speech
Might > possibility, indirect speech
Must > obligation, probability: inference
Mustn't > prohibition
Shall > invitation, future
Would > request ... question, invitation ... question, habitual past actions, indirect speech, conditionals
Will > request ... question, future

Phrasal Modals > Meaning


Be able to > ability
Be about to > future
Be going to > future
Be supposed to > obligation
Be to > obligation
Be willing to > volunteering
Ought to > advisability / recommendation, probability / expectation
Had better (not) > advisability /recommendation
Might want to > advisability /recommendation
Have to > obligation, probability: inference
Not have to > no obligation
Have got to > obligation
Need to > obligation
Not need to > no obligation
Would like (to) > desire & preference
Would prefer > desire & preference
Would rather > desire & preference
Would sooner > desire & preference
Would (you) like ... ? > invitation ... question
Would (you) mind ... ? > request ... question
Used to > habitual past actions

LINC 4

#1 Adjectives; Present & Past Participle
Participles Used as Adjectives
Both present and past participles are used with the verbs
to be and to have
to
create common verb tenses, but they can also be used as adjectives. Since
there is a slight difference in meaning between the present and the past
participles when they are used as adjectives, it is very important to choose the
appropriate form.

Present participles are formed by adding –ing
to the verb stem. As an
adjective, a present participle modifies a noun that affects someone or
something else.
The new song is interesting.
The new song was interesting.

Past participles are formed by adding –ed,
to the verb stem, but some of the
irregular forms may end in
–d, –en, –n, or –t.
As an adjective, a past participle
modifies a noun that is affected by someone or something else.
The fans are interested in the new song.
The fans were interested in the new song.

Participles generally come before the noun they modify. They may also be
linked to the subject of the sentence by a linking verb such as
to be or
to feel.
The park is a frightening place at night.
Steve felt frightened as he walked alone in the park at night.
Practice Exercise
In the sentences below, fill in the correct participles of the verbs in parentheses.
1. People who constantly complain are very (annoy) to me.
2. Whenever Adrian gets (bore), he goes fishing.
3. The students were (confuse) by the Professor’s lecture.
4. Most of the news on television is (depress).
5. The Ruttles were very (excite) to learn that their concert was
sold out.
6. Babysitting young children can be (exhaust) for many people.
7. Steve was so (fascinate) by the book that he finished it in one
evening.
8. Would you be (frighten) if you saw a vampire?
9. After eating a (satisfy) meal, the cat washed her face.
10. When Dagmar looked in the mirror, she was __ (surprise) to
see that she had a leaf in her hair.
Answers
1. People who constantly complain are very annoying to me.
2. Whenever Adrian gets bored, he goes fishing.
3. The students were confused by the Professor’s lecture.
4. Most of the news on television is depressing.
5. The Ruttles were very excited to learn that their concert was sold out.
6. Babysitting young children can be exhausting for many people.
7. Steve was so fascinated by the book that he finished it in one evening.
8. Would you be frightened if you saw a vampire?
9. After eating a satisfying meal, the cat washed her face.
10. When Dagmar looked in the mirror, she was surprised to see that she had
a leaf in her hair.

Definition of a past participle adjective
  • A past participle adjective:
  • indicates a past or completed action or time
  • is formed from a verb using the perfect aspect and the passive voice
  • does not take an object
  • is often called the -ed form
  • often has the same form as the simple past of the verb
  • Note: only transitive verbs can use their past participles as adjectives


Examples of past participle adjectives
  • The bored student.
  • The confused class. (all the students)
  • The chicken has eaten. (perfect aspect:)
  • The chicken was eaten. (passive voice)
  • The following words are past participle adjectives
  • verb - present participle - past participle
  • aggravate - aggravating - aggravated
  • alarm - alarming - alarmed
  • amaze - amazing - amazed
  • amuse - amusing - amused
  • annoy - annoying - annoyed
  • appall - appalling - appalled
  • astonish - astonishing - astonished
  • astound - astounding - astounded
  • bewilder - bewildering - bewildered
  • bore - boring - bored
  • calm - calming - calmed
  • captivate - captivating - captivated
  • challenge - challenging - challenged
  • charm - charming - charmed
  • comfort - comforting - comforted
  • compel - compelling - compelled
  • confuse - confusing - confused
  • convince - convincing - convinced
  • depress - depressing - depressed
  • devastate - devastating - devastating
  • disappoint - disappointing - disappointed
  • disgust - disgusting - disgusted
  • distract - distracting - distracted
  • distress - distressing - distressed
  • disturb - disturbing - disturbed
  • embarrass - embarrassing - embarrassed
  • enchant - enchanting - enchanted
  • encourage - encouraging - encouraged
  • entertain - entertaining - entertained
  • excite - exciting - excited
  • frighten - frightening - frightened
  • humiliate - humiliating - humiliated
  • infuriate - infuriating - infuriated
  • inspire - inspiring - inspired
  • insult - insulting - insulted
  • interest - interesting - interested
  • intimidate - intimidating - intimidated
  • intrigue - intriguing - intrigued
  • mislead - misleading - misled
  • mystify - mystifying - mystified
  • overwhelm - overwhelming - overwhelmed
  • please - pleasing - pleased
  • puzzle - puzzling - puzzled
  • refresh - refreshing - refreshed
  • relax - relaxing - relaxed
  • reward - rewarding - rewarded
  • satisfy - satisfying - satisfied
  • shock - shocking - shocked
  • sicken - sickening - sickened
  • startle - startling - startled
  • surprise - surprising - surprised
  • tempt - tempting - tempted
  • terrify - terrifying - terrified
  • threaten - threatening - threatened
  • tire - tiring - tired
  • welcome - welcoming - welcomed
  • worry - worrying - worried

LINC 4

      • 2 The Adjective Clause

Recognize an adjective clause when you see one.

An adjective clause—also called an adjectival or relative clause—will meet three requirements:
    • First, it will contain a subject and verb.
    • Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why].
    • Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions What kind? How many? or Which one?
The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns:
    • relative pronoun or adverb + subject + verb
    • relative pronoun as subject + verb
Here are some examples:
    • Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie
    • Whose
    • relative pronoun; eyes

    • subject; pleaded = verb.
    • Why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie
    • Why
    • relative adverb; Fred

    • subject; can stand = verb [not, an adverb, is not officially part of the verb].
    • That bounced across the kitchen floor
    • That
    • relative pronoun functioning as subject; bounced

    • verb.
    • Who hiccupped for seven hours afterward
    • Who
    • relative pronoun functioning as subject; hiccupped

    • verb.

Avoid writing a sentence fragment.

An adjective clause does not express a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone as a sentence. To avoid writing a fragment, you must connect each adjective clause to a main clause. Read the examples below. Notice that the adjective clause follows the word that it describes.
    • Diane felt manipulated by her beagle Santana, whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie.
    • Chewing with her mouth open is one reason why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie.
    • Growling ferociously, Oreo and Skeeter, Madison's two dogs, competed for the hardboiled egg that bounced across the kitchen floor.
    • Laughter erupted from Annamarie, who hiccupped for seven hours afterward.

Punctuate an adjective clause correctly.

Punctuating adjective clauses can be tricky. For each sentence, you will have to decide if the adjective clause is essential or nonessential and then use commas accordingly.
Essential clauses do not require commas. An adjective clause is essential when you need the information it provides. Look at this example:
    • The vegetables that people leave uneaten are often the most nutritious.
Vegetables is nonspecific. To know which ones we are talking about, we must have the information in the adjective clause. Thus, the adjective clause is essential and requires no commas.
If, however, we eliminate vegetables and choose a more specific noun instead, the adjective clause becomes nonessential and does require commas to separate it from the rest of the sentence. Read this revision:
    • Broccoli, which people often leave uneaten, is very nutritious.

LINC 4
#6. Gerunds & Infinitves
Here is a brief review of the differences between gerunds and infinitives.
|| || Gerunds are formed with ING:

walking, talking, thinking, listening

Infinitives are formed with TO:
to walk, to talk, to think, to listen





Gerunds and infinitives can do several jobs:
|| || Both gerunds and infinitives can be the subject of a sentence::
||

Writing in English is difficult.To write in English is difficult.


Both gerunds and infinitives can be the object of a verb::
I like writing in English.I like to write in English.

But...

Only gerunds can be the object of a preposition::
We are talking about writing in English.


It is often difficult to know when to use a gerund and when to use an infinitive. These guidelines may help you:
|| || Gerunds are often used when actions are real, concrete or completed::
||

I stopped smoking.(The smoking was real and happened until I stopped.)


Infinitives are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future::
I stopped to smoke.(I was doing something else, and I stopped; the smoking had not happened yet.)


LINC 4

#10. Rejoinders

Rejoinders are quick responses to show that you are interested or paying attention.

(Oh) Really?
That's interesting.
Is that right?

Note how rejoinders are used in the following situations.

1. I just got a new job.
2. I lost my wallet yesterday.

Oh really? That's great!
Oh really? That's too bad.

Rejoinders may also take the form of follow-up questions. Note how they are used in the following situations.


1. I just bought a new car.
2. Johnny is in the hospital.
3. I'm going to Hawaii.

You did?
He is?
You are?




ADJECTIVE PHRASESK. Hanson
Adjective clauses can be reduced to adjective phrases under certain grammatical conditions. In the examples below, you will see a noun modified by an adjective clause and then an example of the same noun modified by the shorter adjective phrase. The red dots indicate that the main clause is incomplete as you are focusing only on clause-to-phrase reduction in these examples. For such reductions to occur, the relative pronoun must be a subject pronoun in all cases.
Grammatical Condition
Clause
Phrase
Verb in adjective clause is an active verb
People who livein large cities...
people living in large cities...
Verb in adjective clause is progressive
Students who are studying at urban campuses...
Students studying at urban campuses...
Verb in adjective clause is passive
Children who are born with congenital heart disease...
Children born with congenital heart disease... (the preferred style)
Adj. clause has the verb be + adjective + infinitive complement
Children who are most likely to recover from serious illness...
Children most likely to recover from serious illness...
Adj. clause has another name for the modified noun (an appositive)
Dr. Francisco Ramirez, who is chief pediatric surgeon atChildren's Hospital,...
Dr. Francisco Ramirez, chief pediatric surgeon at Children's Hospital,... the appositive phrase is preferred style and is non-restrictive.
Listen to reductions of adjective clauses
Find out more about verbals, click verbals under Parts of Speech. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/index2.html#parts
Find out more about appositives. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_appos.html
READING CHALLENGE
The following news article provides information about an important new medical advance in the treatment of heart disease. The first time you read the article, read for information. Then take the reading quiz below.
The second time you read the article, use it as a grammar search and review. Print out the article and follow these directions:
1. [Bracket] all adjective clauses and underline the nouns they modify.
2. Put (parentheses) around adjective phrases and underline the nouns they modify.
3. Circle appositives. Underline the nouns they identify or modify.
4. Identify adjective clauses, phrases, and appositives as Restrictive (R) or Nonrestrictive (NR). Write this information in the margins of the reading.
You will find examples of each type of adjective phrase listed above. Open the Check Grammar Search link only after you have reread the article and searched for adjective clauses and phrases of the various types listed above.
Read the article
Take the Reading Quiz
Print the article, do the grammar search, and fill in table 1 and table 2, which you will need to print off.
Check Grammar Search


Singular - Plural

The English language has both regular and irregular plural forms of nouns.

The most common case is when you need to add -s to the noun. For example one car and two cars.

The other two cases of the regular plural form are:
  • nouns that end with s, x, ch or sh, where you add -es (e.g., one box, two boxes)
  • nouns that end with consonant + y, where you change the y with i and add -es (e.g., one enemy, two enemies)
On the irregular plural form of nouns there are basically eight cases:
  • nouns that end with -o, where you add -es (e.g., one potato, two potatoes)
  • nouns ending with -is, where you change -is to -es (e.g., one crisis, two crises)
  • nouns ending with -f, where you change -f to -v and add -es (e.g., one wolf, two wolves)
  • nouns ending with -fe, where you change -f to -v and add -s (e.g., one life, two lives)
  • nouns ending with -us, where you change -us to -i (e.g., one fungus, two fungi)
  • nouns that contain -oo, change -oo to -ee (e.g., one foot, two feet)
  • nouns that end with -on, where you change -on with -a (e.g., phenomenon, phenomena)
  • nouns that don’t change (e.g., sheep, offspring, series)
It might appear overwhelming, but after using these nouns a couple of times you will be able to memorize their plural form easily.